This is going to be a theoretical discussion – but in my opinion – important theory that explains a lot about the way the world is. It’s not hard to understand – and it shows how linear development had to eventually cope with complexity.
Feedback loops began to appear. For example, the people affected by the Railroads (nearly everyone) became dissatisfied with them, and wanted to change the way they operated.
This was not something the Railroads were designed to do – and they resisted this with all their power. And they were successful at this for a long time – nearly a hundred years.
But eventually too many feedback loops appeared, and they could not be ignored. Complexity had to be acknowledged – which is nothing more than complicated feedback processes where everything affects everything else. The normal state of affairs. But not something people were equipped to recognize – at the time.